CARDIOLOGY
stethoscope
cardiology

CARDIOLOGY

Diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the most common modern diseases and the leading cause of death today. Prevention, early detection and treatment are of great importance and implemented by the internist - a cardiologist. 

Diseases of the heart and blood vessels:

First Ischemic heart disease (angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction) 
Second Arterial hypertension - high blood pressure 
3rd Arterial hypotension - low blood pressure 
4th Syncope - sudden, transient loss of consciousness 
5th Rheumatic fever

6th Valvular heart defects (mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation, mitral valve prolapse, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, tricuspid stenosis, tricuspid insufficiency, pulmonary stenosis, pulmonary insufficiency) 
7th Myocarditis
8th Cardiomyopathy (dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
9th Pericarditis
10th Heart failure
11th Endocarditis
12th Congenital (birth) heart disease
13th Pulmonary heart
14th Pulmonary embolism
15th Heart rhythm disturbances
16th Peripheral artery disease
17th Diseases of the aorta
18th Functional peripheral arterial disease
19th Diseases of veins


The most common symptoms of diseases of the heart and blood vessels: 

- Palpitations (heart pounding, skipping, etc.). 
- Precordial pain (pain behind the breastbone) 
- Dyspnea (feeling of shortness of breath, wheezing) 
- Cough 
- Nikturia (frequent urination at night) 
- Claudication (limping, limping because of pain and weakness in the lower legs) 
- Dyspepsia (loss of appetite, nausea, feeling of fullness after meals, abdominal bloating) 
- Constipation 
- Pain in the liver area (under the right rib cage) 
- Jaundice 
- Cough 
- Hemoptysis (coughing up blood) 
- Syncope (transient loss of consciousness) 



Other symptoms: 

- Weight Loss 
- Weight gain (water retention and creation of islands) 

Diagnosis of heart disease:

A cardiologist diagnoses of CVA (discussion with the patient about problems), clinical examination and additional diagnostics. 

The most commonly used methods include: 

- ECG
- RTG heart and lungs
- ECHO heart (ultrasound of the heart) 
- Holter ECG
- Holter TA
- Ergometry (exercise test) 
- Coronary 

Diagnosis of diseases of the blood vessels:

Besides history (discussion with the patient about the problems) and clinical examination we can apply additional diagnostics:

- Color Doppler vascular
- Angiography
- Plethysmography
- Nuclear scintigraphy and others.

Around 600 000 men and women die of diseases of the heart in the US every year that is 1 in every 4 deaths.  Coronary heart disease is the most typical form of heart problems, killing around 385,000 people every year.  Annually around 720 000 people in America have a heart attack, Of these, 530 000 are a primary heart attack and 195 000 occur in individuals who have already had a acute myocardial infarction.  Diseases of the heart and blood vessels on their own costs the Us $110 000 000 000 every year. This sum incorporates the cost of medical care facilities, prescription medications, and wasted productivity.
Cardiology
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